The Shibogama Communities of Wapekeka (Pop 420), Kingfisher Lake (Pop 411), and Wunnumin Lake (Pop 475) were the first Native group in Ontario to take over extensive control of health services, including Health Centres with treatment components. These services were transferred from Medical Services Branch, Health Canada in 1994 and the change has been very positive for the communities.
These communities are isolated and normally accessible by air only, the exception being short-term winter roads. The usual point of departure for aircraft is Sioux Lookout, which is a town with a population of about 5800 located approximately 400 km Northwest of Thunder Bay on Highway 72. Because of the Shibogama communities' isolation, many services are provided from Sioux Lookout.